Observer’s Challenge: Galaxy M98 in Virgo – May 2017 – Report #99

Posted May 24, 2017 by rogerivester
Categories: Observer's Challenge Reports

MAY 2017 OBSERVERS CHALLENGE – M-098-1

Image of galaxy M98:  32-inch reflector by Mario Motta from Massachusetts.   

M98

 

“M98 (NGC 4192) is an elongated nearly edge-on type Sb spiral, measuring 8.2′ x 2.0′ and shining at magnitude 11.0.  This galaxy’s surface brightness is rather low, making it a tricky object at high power.  Backyard telescopes show this galaxy as a thin streak of greenish light, slightly curved, showing a faint envelope of gas and a sharp nucleus.”   David J. Eicher – Wisconsin – Editor Astronomy Magazine 

 

“Although M98 has low surface brightness, it can be seen in a 60mm refractor under dark skies.  Through a 105mm scope at around 100x, the galaxy is about 6′ x 2′, elongated N-NW to S-SW.  It contains a brighter, extended patchy core and an off-center, nearly stellar nucleus.”  Sue French –  New York – Deep-Sky Wonders

 

M98 is one of the fainter of the Messier objects and can be especially difficult when observed with a telescope smaller than 4-inches. The surface brightness is very low, and regardless of telescope size, a dark sky is needed to see and fully appreciate the many faint, but fine details this galaxy has to offer.

In a 10-inch reflector, M98 appears fairly bright, elongated, a bright nucleus, with unevenness in the halo, with some mottling noted in the central region. Two brighter sections can be seen in both the NW and SE arms.  The nucleus is off-set toward the SE.  

With a 102 mm refractor, and observing from my moderately light polluted backyard this galaxy appears very faint, elongated and weak without any center brightness. In a 6-inch reflector, the galaxy is slightly enlarged and overall a bit brighter when compared to the refractor.  Roger Ivester – Observer from North Carolina 

 Pencil sketch:

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Inverted sketch: 

Rogers M-098 Inverted

 

 

By Dr. James Dire –  Observer from Hawaii
M98 is a magnitude 10.1 barred spiral galaxy in the constellation Coma Berenices. The galaxy is located 6 degrees east of the star Denebola. The galaxy is one-half degree west of the 5th magnitude star 6 Comae Berenices. M98 measures 10 x 2.8 arc minutes in size.

M98 is a nearly edge-on galaxy, inclined 74° to our line of sight. The galaxy has tightly wound spiral arms with a chaotic disk and an active nucleus. Distance measurements range from 44 to 66 million light years. It is thought to be a member of the Virgo galaxy cluster. The galaxy may have interacted with M99 750 million years ago which may account for the distortions in its disk.

Pierre Mechain discovered M98 in 1781, confirmed later that year by Charles Messier. Messier added M98, M99 and M100 into his third catalog immediately before publishing this final edition of his famous list. M98 is one of the faintest objects in Messier’s Catalog.

M98 is one of the few galaxies with a blue shift, meaning it is approaching us. This motion may be temporary if M98 is orbiting the Virgo Cluster. It may be at a point in its orbit where it is approaching us. If it is gravitationally bound to the cluster, it will never reach us.

I viewed M98 in a 6-inch refractor. The galaxy definitely was elongated and nearly edge on. No dust lane was visible and the core appeared much brighter then the galaxy’s edges.

My image of M98 was taken with a 10-inch f/6.9 Newtonian with an SBIG ST-2000XCM CCD camera. The exposure was 200 minutes. I would have preferred a much longer exposure to bring out more detail on the edges of the galaxy and may gather more data on it in the future. The brightest star in the image, located near the bottom left edge, is magnitude 11.7. The four star just off the left edge of the galaxy are magnitudes 12.5, 15.2 16.5 and 18.

On the image, note the bright star-forming region on the bottom (south) edge of the disk. The spiral arm edge visible on the top (north) side of the galaxy has bright HII regions with bright star clusters. Even with this small telescope, I was able to capture the distortions on the north edge of the galaxy’s disk. It appears like the galaxy has two disks that are slightly misaligned with each other. This was either caused the interaction with M99 cited above, or two galaxies have merged to create the presently seen M98.  JD 

M98

 

 

Messier 98 is the second faintest object in the entire Messier galaxy only preceded by M91 (only 0.1 magnitudes fainter). With a visual magnitude of 10.1 and a surface brightness of roughly 13.5 it can be a fairly difficult catch under light polluted skies.

Observing in a suburban location, I could barely make out M98 with a 4.5-inch telescope as an elongated galaxy with a brighter core. With a 10-inch dobsonian reflector and high magnification under a dark sky, I could make out some structure from the mottled disk.

I described the object as follows using magnifications between 60 and 343x:

“Elongated in NW-SE direction. Bright core with a nearly stellar nucleus in the middle. Two spiral arm stubs visible, southern one being slightly brighter. Some dark markings near on the NW side of the galaxy but too difficult to sketch properly. With a bit of a stretch the galaxy is 5′ x 2′ in size”.    Jaakko Saloranta – Observer from Finland 

M98 Pencil sketch using a 4.5-inch reflector:   JS 

M98_LVAS

 

 

M98 –  Date of Observation:  4/12/2015 

I first viewed this galaxy on April 2, 1978, using a 3-inch f/10 reflector at 30X. I wrote in my logbook “Very faint, but looms large with averted vision.” On both occasions, M98 was located with the help of an Astro Card.  Glenn Chaple – Observer from Massachusetts 

Pencil sketch with colors inverted.  GC 

Glenns M-098

 

I observed M98 in dark but hazy skies on Cape Cod with a 10-inch reflector at 87x.  It was easily found with a Telrad offset from 6 Com.  It appeared as an oval patch elongated with approximately 1:4 ratio.  The galaxy appeared uniform without internal details.

Joseph Rothchild –  Observer from Massachusetts

 

Time: 5/20/2017 10:30pm EDT; Location: ATMoB Clubhouse
Bortle Scale: 6; NELM: 5; Transparency: Good; Seeing: Average
Telescope: 10-inch f/5 Reflector 

I managed to locate M98 after several minutes of star hopping from Denebola in Leo. This is the first Deep Sky Object that I’ve attempted on my own in a non-goto telescope. It was quite a challenging learning experience. The galaxy did not jump out at me after initially finding the surrounding star pattern, so I doubted myself for a while until I finally spotted it.

I found that my 25mm eyepiece presented the best view at 51x, with a 1.38º FOV.   Using direct vision the core of M98 showed up as a faint glow. Viewing with averted vision, I was able to see a thin elliptical patch aligned with of a chain of three stars to its SE and two stars to its NW.

A bright magnitude 5 star, 6 Comae Berenices, lies 1/2º due east of the galaxy. Chris Elledge – Observer from Massachusetts 

 

M98

Site: Cherry Springs State Park, Coudersport, PA
May 15, 2017
NELM: 6
Seeing: Excellent
Transparency: Excellent

I observed M98 with a Celestron 8SE SCT, and a Meade zoom EP set to 21 mm, for a magnification of 97x.  

This is a delicate and wispy fried egg of a galaxy; at the time I noted, “reminds one of M108; more pronounced west; upward curve East.”

Craig Sandler – Observer from Lexington, Massachusetts 

M98 Galaxy in Coma Berenices 

May 1967 using a 6-inch reflector @ 59x was large, elongated, located 1/2º east of the 5th mag. star, 6 Coma.  

1991 – using a 3-inch reflector @ 39x:  Large, elongated and diffuse.

1992 – With poor transparency ~ 4.0 NELM using a 60 mm refractor @ 21x could not see.
 
1993 – Using 12 x 50 binoculars could not see, however, galaxies M99 and M100 could be glimpsed.  
 
Gus Johnson – Observer from A Delaware  

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The 2017 Southern Star Astronomy Convention Hosted by The Charlotte Amateur Astronomer’s Club.

Posted April 29, 2017 by rogerivester
Categories: Uncategorized

http://charlotteastronomers.org/southernstar/

The following is a brief review and a few photos of the 31st Annual Southern Star Astronomy Convention.  It was great catching up with old friends and also making a few new ones.  This was another great event in the beautiful Blue Ridge Mountains at Wildacres, a private retreat near Little Switzerland, North Carolina. 

Time passes so fast and life is both unpredictable and fleeting….however, lets try our best to meet again next year.  Roger Ivester 

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A picture of me (Roger Ivester) with Al Nagler, signing my copy of “1000+ The Amateur Astronomer’s Field Guide to Deep-Sky Observing” by the late Tom Lorenzin.  Al Nagler and Tom Lorenzin were very good friends.  Lorenzin later developed an updated 2000+ digital software package.    

The Tele Vue Gibraltar Alt-Az Mount has the 2000+ database by Tom Lorenzin.  Lorenzin passed away unexpectedly in August 2015.  Tom was a friend and I learned a lot from him over the years.  I listened carefully….

Probably very few “1000+ Amateur Field Guides” with a personal note and autograph by both Tom Lorenzin and Al Nagler.  I’ll always cherish my 25 year old Atlas which Tom signed in a cow pasture back in 1993, and now Al Nagler, 2017 in Little Switzerland, North Carolina.   Roger 

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Al Nagler with his wife, Judi….genuine, good and kind people.     

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Charlotte Amateurs very own Jim Lamm presiding over the meeting, and also a photo with Nagler. 

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Al Nagler with longtime member of the Charlotte Amateur’s, Gayle Riggsbee, a multiple winner at Stellafane over several years.

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Featured Speaker:  Dr. John Mather NASA 

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Featured speaker and former observing partner, Tom English.  (Roger Ivester) 

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Speakers:  Drs. Jay Pasachoff and John Mather enjoying the event.  

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Featured speaker Dr. Brad Barlow, enjoying a conversation with Southern Star Attendee, Megan Gialluca “Astronomical League Promising Young Astronomer 2016”

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Time to eat!  Wildacres retreat has incredible food!

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A photo of the surrounding mountains, looking toward Mount Mitchell, the highest peak east of the Mississippi @ 6,684 feet.   (Debbie Ivester)

My wife Debbie with our Dachshund, Nova Sophia “Sophie” at Wildacres.  We had a great day!    

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More photos of beautiful Wildacres Retreat, as following:    

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During the event I was fortunate to meet and talk with Chris Waldrup from Tennessee who is interested in being a part of the Las Vegas Astronomical Society Observers Challenge report.  Chris had two full books of pencil sketches and notes.  My kind of amateur:  Visual observer, pencil sketches and notes!  

https://rogerivester.com/category/observers-challenge-reports-complete-all-reports-from-2009/

https://rogerivester.com/category/2017-2016-2015-2014-2013-2012-2011-2010-2009-observers-challenge-objects-list/

Roger Ivester 

 

Recommended Reading: June 2017 Edition of Sky & Telescope Magazine’s “Focal Point” by Science Editor, Camille Carlisle

Posted April 25, 2017 by rogerivester
Categories: Uncategorized

Sky and Telescope’s science editor Camille Carlisle has written an excellent “Focal Point” in the June 2017 edition (page 84) of Sky & Telescope Magazine.  

Camille has beautifully articulated that both God and Science can coexist.

 I’ve included a few brief excerpts from that article as following:   

“It’s something too many of us forget, that reality has layers.  Occasionally people ask me how I can be Catholic and a science journalist.  The answer is simple:  Truth does not contradict truth.  Both science and religion are a pursuit of truth.  They’re after different aspects of truth, different layers of reality, but they’re still both fundamentally about truth.”

“Trying to prove or disprove God with science is like trying to screw in a flat-head nail with a screwdriver.” 

“So too, trying to “catch” God with science or concluding that He can’t be real because His beautiful universe is too much about drama and too little about perfect engineering…”  

“In my life I, too, have found that God can stand up to any question I throw at Him.  It might take years to find the answer, but it exists.”   Camille M. Carlisle 

From my point of view:  Being a Christian, retired from industrial management and having engineers, medical doctors, and a retired military pilot and other professional as both friends and neighbors, none of us have ever had a problem with science and God.  It’s simple…..we believe in both science and God.  

“Such is eminently the right use of the telescope…a more extensive knowledge of the works of the Almighty…of the immediate relation between the wonderful and beautiful scenes which are opened to our gaze, and the great author of their existence.”    T.W. Webb

Roger Ivester

 

Amateur Telescope Makers of Boston (ATMoB) Monthly Meeting #897: April 13, 2017 – Keynote Speaker: Kevin Collins Shares His Conversion of a 13.1-inch Coulter Dobsonian to an Ultra-Compact

Posted April 22, 2017 by rogerivester
Categories: Uncategorized

Revised ATMoB Meeting Video by Christopher Elledge:    

Craig Sandler of Massachusetts Discovers the Fun and Satisfaction of Finding Deep-Sky Objects by Using Good Old Fashioned Star-hopping.

Posted April 15, 2017 by rogerivester
Categories: Uncategorized

After 15 years of being a slave to my GOTO systems, last night I located M44, M67 and M68, via good old fashioned “Star-hopping” using a totally manual EQ mount and a S&T Sky Atlas.    

It was a REVELATION!   I now understand the sky….maybe 30 percent better this week than two weeks ago, and I was not a beginner to start with.

My first scope was a Meade ETX 125 Maksutov-Cassegrain, so my observing or self-teaching was about looking up at the sky for awhile, then punching buttons, navigating menu stystems instead of the stars, and centering.  

As of my last two sessions with my manual equatorial mount, I now understand why the GoTo systems are set up the way they are.  More to my point, my relationship with the sky is now very intimate, familiar and satisfying.  It’s really hard to put into descriptive language or words. 

I’d never seen the last object on my list and had to FIGHT for ~15-20 minutes to find it, but LOVED the challenge!  I KNEW I could do it, but it wouldn’t have happened without a wide-field of view.    

I recently purchased an Orion Astroview 120 mm f/5 refractor.  It has a straight through, 6×30 finder, not a 90º diagonal, with a mirror-image non-correct view…..which can be torture.  

The Orion Astroview is a high-quality refractor telescope, but with a very economical price.  Now is this possible?  Yes….apparently it is!  Maybe it does not perform like a designer or “big name” APO, but I find the views to be very acceptable….maybe even great!    

Again…..as I said earlier, I’m re-learning amateur astronomy, and many would say the right way.  I’m now using the finding methods of Messier, Herschel, and so many other great observer’s of the past.  

I must say…..it’s wonderful.   Craig Sandler  

The Doctor talks Books, Books and more Books. An Astronomy Book Review by Daniel Mounsey. Excellent and Enjoyable. Please Take The Time To Watch This YouTube Video.

Posted April 11, 2017 by rogerivester
Categories: Uncategorized

 

NGC 3395-96 – Interacting Galaxies in Leo Minor – Observer’s Challenge Report For April 2017 – Month # 98

Posted April 8, 2017 by rogerivester
Categories: Observer's Challenge Reports

Complete Report:  APRIL 2017 OBSERVERS CHALLENGE – NGC-3395-96

Image by Mario Motta –  Observer from Massachusetts –  32-inch telescope – One hour:  6 exposures x 10 minutes stacked 

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Coordinates:  RA: 10h 49.8m   Dec. +33.0′ 

NGC 3395-96 – Interacting Galaxies – Leo Minor – Visual magnitudes: 12.1/12.2  Sfc. Br. 12.9/13.4   Size: 1.9′ x 1.2′ NGC 3396 2.8′ x 1.2′ – “NGC 3395 small but bright oblong;  NGC 3396 lies 1′ E; small oblong; tough but worthy pair!  don’t leave without seeing spiral galaxy NGC 3430 just 30′ to E.    Tom Lorenzin  1000+ The Amateur Astronomer’s Field Guide to Deep-Sky Observing

 

NGC 3395 is another 12th-magnitude spiral, about 2′ in diameter.  Amateur telescopes will show it almost in contact with NGC 3396 at its northeast edge.  These are interacting galaxies, but the bridge of material between them does not show in small telescopes.  Has anyone viewed them with a 30-inch aperture?   Walter Scott Houston  Deep-Sky Wonders – selections and commentary by Stephen James O’Meara 

 

In my 130mm refractor at 48× NGC 3430 shares the field with the colliding galaxies NGC 3395 and NGC 3396. Their combined glow appears a little smaller and fainter than the lone galaxy. At 117× these entangled galaxies each harbor a brighter center, with NGC 3395 boasting the more obvious one. NGC 3396 is elongated approximately east-west, with NGC 3395 south of its western end, where their halos blend together. Seen through my 10-inch scope at 166×, NGC 3396 hosts an elongated core with a starlike nucleus.

NGC 3395 and NGC 3396 have undergone at least one close encounter in the past and are now thought to be in the early stages of a merger, a show we are watching from a distance of 85 million light-years.    Sue French – Observer from New York 

 

I also observed NGC 3395-6 under dark skies with a 10” reflector at 81x.  It was easily seen, appearing most like an asymmetric butterfly  with close interaction of the galaxy pair.   Joseph Rothchild – Observer from Massachusetts 
NGC 3395 and 3396 are a pair of interacting galaxies in the constellation Leo Minor. The galaxies are thought to be in the early stages of merging. The galaxies were discovered by William Herschel in 1785 using an 18.7-inch reflector.

NGC 3395, the brighter of the two galaxies, is magnitude 12 and is roughly 1.6 x0.9 arc minutes in size. Its core is south-west of NGC 3396. NGC 3395 is a Hubble type Sc spiral galaxies.

NGC 3396 is slightly dimmer and slightly larger than NGC 3395. It shines at magnitude 12.4 and is 3.1×1.3 arc minutes in size. NGC 3396 is a barred spiral galaxy.

My image of NGC 3395 and 3396 was taken with a 10-inch f/6.9 Newtonian with a SBIG ST-2000XCM CCD camera. The exposure was 150 minutes. West is to the right and north is up. Several smaller fainter galaxies can be seen scattered throughout the image. The brightest star in the image, located near the left (east) edge, shines at magnitude 10.3. NGC 3396 is on the left, NGC 3395 on the right.

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Sometimes NGC 3395 is measured to be larger than the size I reported above. That is because the galaxy lies along the line of sight of a slightly larger and slightly dimmer background galaxy. This galaxy is PGC 4534783, a magnitude 13.2 galaxy. PGC 4534783 is 2.3 x 1 arc minutes in size and the position angle is nearly identical to NGC 3395.

The bright emission nebula IC 2605 lies in the southern edge of NGC 3395. The nebula can be seen in the accompanying image near the edge of the visible galaxy. This nebula was discovered April 11, 1899 by Guillaume Bigourdan. He estimated the magnitude to be 15 and size 0.4 x 0.2 arc minutes.

I viewed NGC3395 and 3396 with a 6-inch refractor under clear dark skies. The galaxies appeared as elongated glows close to one another, but the interacting portions of the galaxies were not bright enough to see.     Dr. James Dire from Hawaii

 

Observer:  Roger Ivester – Date: March 18, 2017  
Telescope: 10-Inch Reflector
Sketch Magnification: 135x
Eyepiece: 16 mm + 1.9x Barlow

Galaxy NGC 3395-96: Almost connecting. Both galaxies are elongated, brighter middles with NGC 3396 having a distinctive stellar nucleus when using averted vision, but could only be seen intermittently. I could glimpse the galaxies using a low magnification of 57x, but the best views came at 200x, and 135x, respectively, which would indicate that both galaxies are fairly well concentrated. Joseph Rothchild from Massachusetts, using a 10-inch reflector provided an excellent description of this beautiful interacting pair: “Easily seen, appearing most like an asymmetric butterfly….”

Another galaxy, NGC 3340, only 1/2º to the east of the NGC 3395-96 pair, has low surface brightness. Elongated NE-SW with an oval shape and a very subtle brightening or greater concentration in the central region. Despite the low surface brightness, I found that a higher magnification of 191x worked best.

Roger Ivester:  Observer from North Carolina 

NGC 3395-96:  Pencil Sketch with colors inverted:

Rogers NGC-3395-96a

NGC 3395-96:  Pencil sketch direct from the telescope eyepiece without colors inverted:

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NGC 3430:  Direct pencil sketch from the telescope eyepiece without colors inverted.  

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Glenn Chaple:  Observer from Massachusetts

“I observed and sketched these interacting galaxies with a 13.1-inch f/4.5 Coulter Odyssey I reflector and 9mm Nagler eyepiece (166X, 0.5 degree field). The galaxies were relatively easy to find by star-hopping from a trio of stars that included 46 LMi and 46 UMa to a wide double star a degree south and slightly west, then shifting one-half. I had previously viewed these galaxies with fellow ATMoB members Steve Clougherty and Rich Nugent, using Steve’s 18-inch Dob. They were barely perceptible, but skies were rapidly hazing up. These galaxies definitely need clear skies!”

You’ll like this. On the same night we viewed NGC 3395/6, Steve and Rich also turned the 18-inch on your Virgo Diamond. I’m not sure which of them had the finder chart, but they did this on their own – no prodding from me

Glenn Chaple