Roger Ivester: Amateur Astronomer

Posted December 15, 2015 by rogerivester
Categories: Uncategorized

Thank you for visiting my site.  I’m hopeful that you’ll find it both interesting and beneficial in your future observations.  Roger Ivester 

DSCF5178

 

Moon Day by James Mullaney

Posted July 23, 2016 by rogerivester
Categories: Uncategorized

Something I wanted to share by my good friend of many years, James Mullaney.  James is an astronomy writer, author, lecturer, former associate editor at both Astronomy and Sky & Telescope Magazines.  I sent James (Jim) a hand written letter almost twenty five years ago, praising him for his reference book “The Finest Deep-Sky Objects” and we’ve corresponded and been friends every since.  I’m really glad that I wrote that letter….sent via USPS with a stamp.   Roger Ivester 

Happy Moon Day! by James Mullaney  arcturussj <arcturussj@aol.com>: Jul 19 03:15PM -0400

Hi Everyone,

As I do just about every year at this time, I’m pushing for a national or international holiday to celebrate this momentous historic event. If there’s a Columbus Day on the calendar, surely there should be a Moon Day every July 20th. Still amazes me how many people have no clue what that date is (or October 4th, the beginning of the Space Age). Take a poll of your typical planetarium audience to see for yourself. But then just as shocking is how many people don’t know who Carl Sagan was. How very sad and shameful on all accounts.

Jim Mullaney, FRAS

M5 Globular Cluster in Serpens and The Mystery of The Ruby Eyes

Posted June 26, 2016 by rogerivester
Categories: Observer's Challenge Reports

Globular Cluster M5 and the Ruby Eyes.   Be sure to click on the following link for the complete report….

JUNE 2016 OBSERVERS CHALLENGE – M-005

10-inch reflector @ 208x:   Pencil sketch using a blank 5 x 8 blank notecard with the colors inverted via a scanner.  Note the dark lane on the northern edge, and the chain of stars on the  leading of the SSW  edge of the cluster.  RI Scanned Image 161780000

The following image was made using a 4-inch refractor by Dr. James Dire of Hawaii.  Please note the dark lane on the northern edge as shown in the previous pencil sketch.   

M5_4inch

The following Image by James Dire using a 10-inch reflector….again note the northern dark lane, and the chain of stars extending SSW away from the cluster, as shown in both images.

M5_10inch

 

Visual notes as following by the writer.  RI

M5 – NGC 5904 – Globular cluster in Serpens – Observer: Roger IvesterDate: May 27, 2016
Telescope: 10-inch f/4.5 Reflector
Magnification: 208x
FOV: 0.39º NELM: 5.0

Very bright, easily seen through an 8 x 50 finder. At magnitude 5.7, the cluster should be visible naked eye from a dark site. Well concentrated and dense in the central region, with many stars resolved at 208x. When using averted vision, a chain of stars encompasses the northern edge, creating a subtle void between this chain and the main cluster. Also with averted vision, a very faint chain of stars lead off toward the SW. A halo surrounds the main cluster in a mostly circular shape, with many outlier stars embedded in the halo and extending well beyond.

Telescope: 102 mm f/9.8 refractor
Magnification: Eyepiece 26 mm + 2.8x Barlow = 108x

Bright with a well concentrated center and much brighter more intense core. Little to no resolution, however, many brighter outliers are visible. A chain of five stars are easily seen on the north edge of the cluster. The most prominent feature of this cluster, using the 102 mm refractor is the triangular shaped core.  Notes by Roger Ivester

 

The following write-up/article by Dr. James Dire, which accompanies the two images as posted above. 

M5
By Dr. James R. Dire
M5 is one of the finest globular star clusters north of the celestial equator. Located in Serpens Caput, the cluster is very easy to find. It is 8th degrees due east of 4th magnitude 109 Virginis, 11.5 degrees north of Beta Librae, and 7.5 degrees southwest of Alpha Serpentis. The cluster is a mere 20 arcminutes northwest of 5th magnitude MQ Serpentis (or 5 Serpentis).

M5 was discovered by Godfried Kirch in 1704. Kirch discovered it while looking at a comet nearby. Charles Messier catalog it in 1764. The integrated magnitude of the cluster is 5.6 and its diameter is 28.4 arcminutes. The cluster is an easy find in binoculars!

M5 contains hundreds of thousands of stars. Of those, nearly 100 are known to be RR Lyrae-type variable stars. These variable stars pin down the distance to the cluster at 24,500 light years. The cluster is one of the largest globular clusters in the Milky Way spanning 165 light years. Any object within 200 light years of M5’s center would be gravitationally bound to the cluster, unless moving with a radial velocity equal to the cluster’s escape velocity. M5 is thought to be 13 billion years old, one of the oldest globular clusters known.

Nearby 5 Serpentis is a binary star with components of magnitude 5.0 and 10.1, separated by 11.4 arc seconds. Slightly more than two degrees south of M5 lies another globular cluster known as Polomar 5. Located three times farther away than M5, Polarmar 5 shines at magnitude 11.75 and is 16 arcminutes in size.

I offer two images I took of M5. The first was taken with a 4-inch f/7.9 Stellarvue 102mm APO. The exposure was 30 minutes with an SBIG ST-2000XCM CCD camera. The bright star partial cut off to the lower left of the cluster is MQ Serpentis! The second image was taken with the same camera on a Discovery 10-inch f/6 Newtonian with a Televue Paracorr II coma corrector. The exposure was 60 minutes. The images speak for themselves!  James Dire 

M100 – NGC 4321 – Galaxy in Coma Berenices

Posted May 21, 2016 by rogerivester
Categories: Observer's Challenge Reports

Observer’s Challenge Link:  

MAY 2016 OBSERVERS CHALLENGE – M-100-1

M100 – NGC 4321 – Galaxy in Coma Berenices 

Date: April 2016
NELM: 5.0
Telescope: 10-inch Newtonian Reflector
Magnification: 57x
Field of View: 1.1º

Description: Low surface brightness, mostly round with a subtle NW-SE elongated halo. Bright nucleus, almost stellar at high magnification. A very dim patch W of the core and a hint of a spiral arm on the SW edge.    Roger Ivester

The following is a pencil sketch using only a No.2 pencil, an eraser, a blank 5 x 8 notecard with the colors inverted using a scanner.  RI 

Scanned Image 161410000

The following information and image provided by Dr. James Dire from Hawaii.

M100
By James Dire, Ph.D.

M100 is located in the constellation Coma Berenices. It lies 8 degrees east and slightly north of the star Denebola (Beta Leonis). It can be found roughly 40% of the way along a line from Denebola to the star Diadem (Alpha Comae Berenices). At magnitude 9.3, M100 is one of the brightest galaxies in the Coma-Virgo Cluster. M100 was first spied by Pierre Merchain in 1781 and then confirmed by Charles Messier later that year. M100 is a face-on spiral galaxy located 56 million light years away as determined by measuring the periods of Cepheid variable stars in the galaxy.

My image of M100 was taken with a 190mm f/5.3 Maksutov-Newtonian with an SBIG ST-2000XCM CCD camera. The expose was one hour. The galaxy has two main spiral arms with numerous branches. The arms contain many massive, hot, blue giant stars with many HII giant clouds of gas. The nucleus is bright and compact.

M100

The second image has labels for several nearby galaxies and their magnitudes. All are members of the Coma-Virgo cluster.

M100_legend

The following sketch and notes compliments of Jaakko Saloranta of Finland.

M100_2016_LVAS

Rough sketch made at the eyepiece. 8 inch dobson shows a bright galaxy with a nearly stellar nucleus @ 38x –(66′). Best visible @ 152x (16′) but the spiral structure is very difficult. Flanked nicely by two 14th magnitude stars. Bright, non-stellar nucleus surrounded by a E-W elongated halo. Northern spiral arm is brighter with a brighter spot at the W end. Southern spiral arm is slightly smaller but with two brighter areas visible in the arm in both ends. It takes over an hour to discern the spiral structure properly with this aperture. NGC 4323 and NGC 4328 not looked for.    Jaakko Saloranta 

NGC 3077 – Galaxy – Ursa Major

Posted May 3, 2016 by rogerivester
Categories: Observer's Challenge Reports

Observer’s Challenge Link:  APRIL 2016 OBSERVERS CHALLENGE – NGC-3077

The following pencil sketch was made using a 10-inch reflector, and a  5 x 8 blank notecard with the colors inverted via scanner.  Roger Ivester

Scanned Image 161230001

NGC 3077 – Galaxy – Ursa Major
Date: April 25, 2016
NELM: 5.0
Telescope: 10-inch Newtonian reflector
Eyepiece: 12.5 mm + 2.8x Barlow
Magnification: 256x

At 57x, fairly easy to see, appearing mostly as a circular glow. At 91x, the galaxy becomes elongated with a NE-SW orientation, and a brighter central region, however, subtle. When increasing the magnification to 256x, a stellar nucleus is visible, but cannot be held constantly. The surface brightness of this galaxy is fairly low, making it difficult from my moderately light polluted backyard.

After viewing close neighboring galaxies, M81 and M82, which are much brighter and larger, NGC 3077 can be difficult, and maybe even a bit disappointing.

Roger Ivester

The following report and images are courtesy of Dr. James Dire of Hawaii.

NGC 3077
By Dr. James R. Dire

NGC3077 is a peculiar galaxy located in Ursa Major near the galaxy pair M81 and M82. The galaxy was discovered by William Herschel on November 8, 1801. Although the galaxy looks like an elliptical galaxy in the eyepiece, images of it show it has wispy edges and dark dust lanes, atypical of elliptical galaxies. Carl Seyfert included it in his list of active galaxies (now called Seyfert galaxies) in 1943. Today it is considered an irregular galaxy. Its distorted shape is probably casued by gravitational interactions with the large spiral galaxy M81, similar to Barnard’s Galaxy, NGC6822, which is equally close to the Milky Way.

Magnitude estimates for NGC3077 range from 9.9 to 10.8. The galaxy is 5.3′ x 4.4′ in size and is located 12.8 ± 0.7 Mly away. The galaxy is located three-quarters of a degree east-southeast of M81.

The first image was taken with a Stellarvue SV102 102 mm apochromatic refractor at f/6.3 using a Televue 0.8x FF/FR. The camera was a Canon 30D and the exposure was 60 minutes. In all images, north is up and east to the left. Image 1 was framed to have M81 and M82 centered. NGC3077 is labeled in the lower left-hand corner of the frame.

The second image was taken with a 10″ f/6 Newtonian with a Paracorr II coma corrector, yielding an f/6.9 optical system. A SBIG ST-2000XCM CCD camera was used. The exposure was 100 minutes. I really need 300-400 minutes of data to bring out the wispy edges and dark dust areas of the galaxy. But they can (barely) be seen in this short exposure. Unfortunately, time and weather did not allow more imaging before submitting this report.

Image 1

 

Image 3

NGC 2392 – Eskimo Nebula – Gemini

Posted April 15, 2016 by rogerivester
Categories: Uncategorized

Please click on the following link for the Observers Challenge report:

MARCH 2016 OBSERVERS CHALLENGE – NGC-2392

NGC 2392 – Planetary Nebula – Gemini
Date: February 2016
Observer: Roger Ivester
Telescope: 10-inch f/4.5 reflector
Sketch magnification: 190x
FOV: 0.32º – 19 arc minutes

Description: Very bright, bluish ball, appearing as a blurred star at low magnification. When increasing the magnification to 190x, the central star is easily seen. The edges are well defined, with a darker patch noted on the SSW edge. When increasing the magnification to 267x, using a 12 mm plus a 2.8x Barlow, the nebula became granular.

Date: January 31, 1998
Telescope: 10-inch reflector@ 256x (12.5 mm plus 2.8x Barlow)
Very bright, round, bright central star, with well defined outer edges. Greater concentration on SW edge.

Date: February 8, 2008
Telescope: 10-inch reflector@ 190x (12 mm plus 2.0x Barlow)
Much brighter than double planetary nebula, NGC 2371-2372 also in Gemini. The nebula is very bright, round, but has a hint of N-S elongation. The central star is easily seen at all magnifications.  RI 

The following pencil sketch was made using a 10-inch Newtonian reflector, with a blank 5 x 8 notecard, with the colors inverted via computer.   Roger Ivester

Scanned Image 160930001

The following image was made by Jim Gianoulakis of Las Vegas.  Can you see the face of an Eskimo, or how about a clown-face, or maybe even the face of the beloved character, WC Fields?  

ESKIMO-MORE-COLOR-CROP-1

The Rosette Nebula – NGC 2237 – Monoceros

Posted March 21, 2016 by rogerivester
Categories: Observer's Challenge Reports

LVAS Challenge Link:

FEBRUARY 2016 OBSERVERS CHALLENGE – NGC-2237

The Rosette Nebula – NGC 2237 – Monoceros
Date: February 27, 2016
Telescope: 10-inch reflector
Eyepiece: 32 mm
Magnification: 36x
Field of View: 1.7º
Naked Eye Limiting Magnitude: 5.0

Faint circular nebula over 1º in diameter, surrounding open cluster NGC 2244. The cluster contains twelve brighter members with many fainter stars. Two pairs of wide doubles are located on the NW edge of the cluster. 

Faint circular nebula over 1º in diameter, surrounding open cluster NGC 2244. The cluster contains twelve brighter members with many fainter stars. Two pairs of wide doubles are located on the NW edge of the cluster.

A low power wide field eyepiece with an O-III filter are essential in seeing the vast wealth of faint detail found in the nebula. The SE section is the brightest and most concentrated. I have found that covering my head with a cloth improves the contrast of the nebula significantly. The texture of the Rosette is very uneven, with many lighter and darker areas.

Many amateurs feel that the Rosette can only be observed successfully under a very dark sky. However, I’ve enjoyed observing it many times over the past twenty five years from my moderately light polluted backyard, using a nebula filter.

Roger Ivester

Pencil sketch using a 10-inch reflector from my moderately light polluted backyard.  

Scanned Image 160920001

The following images courtesy of Dr. James Dire of Hawaii 

Telescope: SV102 Apo refractor:  Exposure 240 minutes (24 x 10)

Rosette01

Below:  Williams Optics 71 mm f/4.9 Apo refractor.  180 minutes (18 x 10) 

NGC2237

Double Star Marathon List By Glenn Chaple

Posted February 18, 2016 by rogerivester
Categories: Uncategorized

ASY160301

For those of you…like me, who have always enjoyed the challenges and beauty of double and multiple stars, rather than a Messier marathon, why not a double star marathon, consisting of 110 double and multiple stars.    Roger Ivester  

“The two observing windows of opportunity for this year’s Messier marathon are March 12/13 and April 2/ weekends when the Moon lies near it’s new phase.  Because the visibliy of double stars isn’t as affected by lunar phase as is that of the fainter Messier objects, we can extend these windows a few evenings before and after the above dates”  by Glenn Chaple, “Observing Basics” page 20, March 2016, “Astronomy Magazine.” 

It’s my plan to sketch all doubles, make some notes, and list “my perceived” colors of both the primary and secondary.  I’ve always enjoyed a challenge, so why not?   I’ll let you know how it goes.  So please check back!     Roger
 

Double Star Marathon Observing List
Glenn Chapelle, 2016

    Object                     R.A.              Dec.          Mags.      Sep(“)     P.A.
1. STF 3053              00 02.6      +66 06      6.0, 7.2       15.0         70
2. alpha Cas            00 40.5       +56 32      2.4, 9.0      69.5      282
3. eta Cas                  00 49.1       +57 49      3.4, 7.5      12.0       307
4. STF 163 Cas         01 51.3       +64 51       6.8, 9.1      33.9          36
5. gamma Ari          01 53.5       +19 18       4.8, 4.8       7.8             0
6. lambda Ari          01 57.9      +23 36       4.9, 7.7      37.7           46
7. gamma And        02 03.9     +42 20      2.3, 5.5        9.8            63
8. iota Tri                  02 12.4     +30 18       5.3, 6.9        3.9            71
9. alpha UMi            02 31.8     +89 16       2.0, 9.0     18.4         218
10. eta Per                 02 50.7     +55 54       3.8, 8.5     28.3         300

11. STF 331 Per         03 00.9    +52 21        5.3, 6.7      12.1           85
12. 32 Eri                   03 54.3     -02 57       4.8, 6.1       6.8          347
13. STF 485 Cam     04 07.8    +62 20       6.9, 6.9    17.7          305
14. omi2 Eri              04 15.3    -07 39        4.4, 9.7    83.0         104
15. chi Tau                 04 22.6   +25 38        5.5, 7.6    19.4           24
16. 1 Cam                   04 32.0    +53 55        5.7, 6.8    10.3         308
17. 55 Eri                     04 43.6   -08 48       6.7, 6.8     9.2          317
18. rho Orionis          05 13.3    +02 52       4.6, 8.5      7.1           64
19. beta Ori                05 14.5    -08 12        0.1, 6.8      9.5        202
20. 118 Tau                05 29.3   +25 09       5.8, 6.6      4.8        204

21. delta Ori               05 32.0   -00 18        2.2, 6.3    52.6       359
22. STF 747 Ori         05 35.0   -06 00       4.8, 5.7     35.7       223
23. lambda Ori          05 35.1    +09 56       3.6, 5.5       4.4         43
24. theta1 Ori             05 35.3   -05 23        6.7, 7.9       8.8         31
                                                                                     5.1       13.0       132
                                                                                     6.7      21.5         96
25. iota Ori                  05 35.4    -05 55       2.8, 6.9     11.3       141
26. STF 742                 05 36.4    +22 00      7.1, 7.5       4.0      274
27. sigma Ori              05 38.7    -02 36       4.0, 7.5     12.9       84
                                                                                        6.5    43.0       61
28. gamma Lep          05 44.5    -22 27       3.7, 6.3    96.0     350
29. STF 817 Ori           05 54.9     +07 02      8.7, 8.9   18.8        73
30. epsilon Mon          06 23.8    +04 36      4.5, 6.5    13.4        27

31. beta Mon                06 28.8   -07 02  AB 4.6, 5.0    7.1       133
                                                                           BC 5.0, 5.3   2.9       108
32. 12 lyn                      06 46.2    +59 27         5.4, 7.3    8.7      308
33. 38 Gem                    06 54.6    +13 11          4.7, 7.8    7.3      326
34. h3945 CMa            07 16.6    -23 19          5.0, 5.8  26.8       52
35. 19 Lyn                      07 22.9    +55 17          5.6, 6.5  14.8      315
36. alpha Gem             07 34.6     +31 53          1.9, 2.9   2.2       171
37. STF 1121 Pup         07 36.6     -14 29         7.0, 7.3    7.4      305
38. kappa Pup             07 38.8     -26 48         4.5, 4.7    9.9     318
39. 2 Pup                       07 45.5     -14 41          6.0, 6.7   16.6    340
40. zeta Cnc                 08 12.2      +17 39         5.1, 6.2     5.9       72

41. phi2 Cnc                 08 26.8      +26 56       6.2, 6.2     5.2     218
42. iota Cnc                  08 46.7      +28 46       4.2, 6.6  30.0     307
43. 38 Lyn                     09 18.8      +36 48        3.9, 6.6    2.7     229
44. zeta1 Ant                09 30.8      -31  53        6.1, 6.8    8.1      212
45. gamma Leo           10 20.0      +19 51         2.2, 3.5    4.4      122
46. 54 Leo                     10 55.6       +24 45       4.5, 6.3     6.5      110
47. N Hya                       11 32.3       -29 16        5.8, 5.9    9.2      210
48. delta Crv                 12 29.9      -16 31         3.0, 9.2   24.2    214
49. 24 Com                   12 35.1        +18 23        5.2, 6.7  20.3     271
50. STF 1659 Crv         12 35.7       -12 01         8.0, 8.3  27.5     352

51. STF 1664 Vir           12 38.3     -11 31           7.8, 9.2   37.2    224
52. STF 1669 Crv          12 41.3     -13 01          5.9, 5.9     5.3     312
53. gamma Vir              12 41.7     -01 27         3.5, 3.5      3.6     293
54. 32 Cam                     12 49.2    +83 25        5.3, 5.8    21.6     326
55. alpha CVn                12 56.0     +38 19         2.9, 5.5    19.4    229
56. zeta UMa                 13 23.9     +54 56         2.3, 4.0    14.4    152
57. 3 (K) Cen                  13 51.8      -33 00        4.5, 6.0      7.9    106
58. kappa Boo               14 13.5      +51 47         4.6, 6.6    13.4    236
59. iota Boo                   14 16.2      +51 22         4.9, 7.5     38.0     33
60. STF 1835 Boo         14 23.4     +08 27         5.0, 6.8      6.2    194

61. pi Boo                       14 40.7     +16 25          4.9, 5.8      5.6    108
62. epsilon Boo            14 45.0     +27 04         2.5, 4.9      2.8    339
63. xi Boo                       14 51.4      +19 06         4.7, 7.0      6.9    332
64. delta Boo                15 15.5       +33 19          3.5, 8.7   105.0     79
65. mu Boo                    15 24.5      +37 23         4.3, 7.0   108.0    171
66. delta Ser                  15 34.8      +10 32         4.2, 5.2       3.9    178
67. zeta CrB                   15 39.4      +36 38         5.1, 6.0       6.3    305
68. beta Ser                   15 46.2      +15 25          3.7, 10.0  30.9   264
69. xi Sco                        16 04.4      -11 22          4.8, 7.3     7.6        51

70. beta Sco                    16 05.4      -19 48         2.6, 4.9    13.6      21
71. kappa Her                16 08.1       +17 03         5.3, 6.5     28.0     12
72. nu Sco                       16 12.0       -19 28         4.3, 6.4    41.0    337
73. sigma CrB                16 14.7        +33 52         5.6, 6.6     6.2    233
74. 16,17 Dra                  16 36.2       +52 55         5.4, 6.4     3.4     108
                                                                                               5.5   90.0   194
75. mu Dra                     17 05.3        +54 28        5.7, 5.7       2.0     42
76. alpha Her                17 14.6         +14 23        3.5, 5.4      4.7     107
77. delta Her                  17 15.0         +24 50       3.1, 8.2      8.9    236
78. 36 Oph                     17 15.3         -26 36         5.1, 5.1      4.4     154
79. omicron Oph         17 18.0         -24 17          5.4, 6.9   10.3    355
80. rho Her                   17 23.7          +37 09         4.6, 5.6    4.1     316

81. nu Dra                     17 32.2          +55 11          4.9, 4.9    62.0   312
82. psi Dra                    17 41.9           +72 09       4.9, 6.1     30.3      15
83. PZ4 (h5003) Sgr  17 59.1          -30 15          5.4, 7.0      5.8    107
84. 40,41 Dra               18 00.2        +80 00         5.7, 6.1     19.3   232
85. 95 Her                     18 01.5          +21 36         5.0, 5.1       6.3   258
86. 70 Oph                    18 05.5          +02 30        4.2, 6.0     2.8      72
87. 100 Her                   18 07.8         +26 06        5.8, 5.8    14.2    183
88. epsilon1 Lyr          18 44.3          +39 40        5.0, 6.1       2.1    352
89. epsilon2 Lyr                                                        5.3, 5.4      2.4     82
90. zeta Lyr                  18 44.8          +37 36        4.3, 5.9     44.0   150

91. beta Lyr                  18 50.1           +33 22        3.4, 8.6     46.0    149
92. SHJ 282 Lyr          18 54.9           +33 58        6.0, 7.7     45.0    350
93. theta Ser                18 56.2           +04 12        4.5, 5.4     22.3    104
94. STF 2470 Lyr       19 08.8           +34 46       7.0, 8.4    13.6      268
95. STF 2474 Lyr       19 09.1            +34 36        6.8, 7.9    15.8     262
96. beta Cyg                19 30.7            +27 58        3.1, 5.1      34.4       54
97. 16 Cyg                    19 41.8            +50 32        6.0, 6.2    39.1      134
98. 57 Aql                     19 54.6           -08 14        5.8, 6.5     36.0     170
99. h1470 Cyg             20 03.7           +38 20       7.4, 9.2    28.6     340
100. kappa Cep           20 08.9          +77 43        4.4, 8.3      7.2      120

101. gamma Del         20 46.7           +16 07       4.5, 5.5       9.6     268
102. 61 Cyg                  21 06.9            +38 45       5.2, 6.0    28.0     146
103. beta Cep              21 28.7            +70 34       3.2, 7.9     13.3      249
104. STF 2816 Cep    21 39.0            +57 29       5.6, 7.7      11.7      121
                                                                                              7.8      20.0    339
105. STF 2819 Cep      21 40.4         +57 35         7.4, 8.6     12.7       59
106. epsilon Peg          21 44.2        +09 52         2.4, 8.4   142.0    320
107. xi Cep                     22 03.8        +64 38         4.4, 6.5      7.7      277
108. delta Cep              22 29.2        +58 25         3.9, 6.3     41.0     192
109. 8 Lac                      22 35.9         +39 38        5.7, 6.5     22.4     186
110. sigma Cas             23 59.0         +55 45         5.0, 7.1        3.0    326


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